BTC Domain & ZKVM

Why ZK is needed in BTC Domain?


In our previous discussion, we explored the concepts of Zero-Knowledge (ZK) and Zero-Knowledge Virtual Machine (ZKVM). To simplify the idea of ZK technology, imagine that it enables programs to be executed on a single computer, producing both an output and a ZK proof. By verifying the ZK proof, anyone can easily confirm that the ZK program has been executed without any tampering. In this article, we will discuss why ZK is needed in the Bitcoin domain space.

The Need for Trusted Computing in Bitcoin Domain Space

Although Bitcoin provides a decentralized and secure platform for transactions, it lacks native support for complex smart contracts like those found in platforms such as Ethereum. This limitation creates a need for an alternative approach to achieving trusted computing, ensuring no duplication in the registration process and that domains are resolved without any possible tampering.

Zero-Knowledge as the Solution

ZK technology offers a solution to this problem by employing mathematical methods to create a trusted computing environment. When combined with Ordinal's capability of making Bitcoin a data-available chain, we can achieve a system that functions similarly to smart contracts while relying solely on Bitcoin.

By building a resolver and registrar on Cairo, a ZK-friendly programming language, we can generate a proof that proves a domain is indeed available. Additionally, we can inspect every Bitcoin transaction and ensure that the domain is resolved correctly.

Advantages of Using ZK Proofs

The use of ZK proofs offers several benefits in the Bitcoin domain space:

  1. Enhanced Security: ZK proofs ensure that the resolver and registrar processes are executed correctly without revealing any sensitive information or tampering with the process.

  2. Resource Efficiency: Verifiers do not need to compute the entire process again. By verifying the ZK proof with minimal computing resources, they can ensure that the resolver and registrar have been run in the manner described.

  3. Scalability: As ZK proofs are more compact and require fewer resources to verify, they enable greater scalability in the Bitcoin domain space.

  4. Privacy: ZK technology ensures that sensitive information, such as domain ownership or transaction details, remains confidential while still enabling the verification of the correctness of the processes.


Zero-Knowledge technology is a valuable addition to the Bitcoin domain space, offering a viable alternative to traditional smart contracts. By employing ZK proofs, we can ensure the correct execution of resolver and registrar processes, maintain privacy, and achieve greater scalability. This powerful combination enables a secure and efficient system for managing domains on the Bitcoin platform.

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