ZK Diffculity & Progress


Zero-Knowledge (ZK) technology offers a promising solution for enhancing privacy, security, and scalability in the Bitcoin domain space. However, there are several challenges to overcome when deploying ZK proofs in this context. In this article, we will discuss the difficulties encountered while integrating ZK technology into the Bitcoin domain space.

  1. Early Stage of Cairo Development: Cairo, a ZK-friendly programming language, is still in its early stages of development. As a result, it lacks many basic libraries that are essential for building applications. To address this limitation, developers must collaborate with the Cairo community to create the necessary tools, which can be both time-consuming and resource-intensive. While it is exciting to work alongside creative minds in the field, the process inevitably leads to delays in the deployment of ZK technology in the Bitcoin domain space.

  2. Limited Static Typing and Inconvenient Programming: Cairo's limited static typing poses another challenge, as it does not support 256-bit integer types. This limitation complicates the programming process, especially when verifying cryptographic algorithms like secp256k1, which relies on 256-bit integers as its base. Consequently, developers must devise workarounds and alternative solutions to accommodate Cairo's constraints, further adding to the complexity of the task.

  3. Insufficient Tools and Secondary Development Requirements: Although the Cairo community offers valuable tools such as Giza, these tools do not currently provide all the necessary functionality for deploying ZK proofs in the Bitcoin domain space. This necessitates additional secondary development for the Cairo toolchain, which can be both time-consuming and resource-intensive. To overcome this challenge, developers must invest significant effort in enhancing the available tools to meet the specific requirements of the Bitcoin domain space.

Conclusion: Deploying Zero-Knowledge proofs in the Bitcoin domain space offers numerous benefits, such as improved security, and scalability. However, the integration process faces several challenges, including the early stage of Cairo development, limited data type, and insufficient tools. Addressing these issues requires a concerted effort from the developer community to build the necessary libraries, enhance tool functionality, and devise solutions that accommodate the limitations of the Cairo programming language. By overcoming these challenges, we can successfully harness the potential of ZK technology in the Bitcoin domain space.


As part of our ongoing commitment to transparency and collaboration, we have open-sourced our resolver on GitHub and are actively building numerous basic libraries using the Cairo programming language. We will continue to update our progress on this page and through our blog posts to keep the community informed about our advancements.

Open-Sourcing Our Resolver

We understand the importance of open-source development and its role in fostering a collaborative environment. By making our resolver code publicly available on GitHub, we aim to encourage other developers to contribute to the project, provide valuable feedback, and help improve the overall quality and performance of the resolver. This open-source approach allows for greater innovation and faster development, ultimately benefiting the entire community.

Building Libraries with Cairo

Cairo is a ZK-friendly programming language that, despite being in its early stages of development, offers significant potential for deploying Zero-Knowledge proofs in various applications. As part of our efforts, we are actively working on building essential libraries with Cairo to address its current limitations and provide a more robust foundation for developers.

These libraries will include functionality for handling cryptographic algorithms, data structures, and various other utilities required to build applications on top of the Zero-Knowledge proof system. By creating and maintaining these libraries, we hope to ease the development process for others and accelerate the adoption of Zero-Knowledge technology.

Updates and Blog Posts

To keep our community informed about our progress and the latest developments, we will regularly update this page and publish blog posts. These updates will cover new features, improvements to existing libraries, bug fixes, and other important milestones. We encourage our community members to follow these updates and engage with us by providing feedback and suggestions for future improvements.

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